The editorial staff will not review the paper which is not formatted in accordance with the “Rules of Formatting the Article”.
It is necessary that the terminology used in the whole text of the article is invariable.
Remark: Abstract, bibliography, and reference are not included in the length of the article.
Keywords – words of the body of the article, which are of essential significance and are the keys to search the relevant information.
Abstract in Georgian, as well as in English, should not exceed 250 words.
Authors who are not of Georgian origin, are not obliged to submit abstract in Georgian.
The abstract should contain the following aspects of the content of the article:
Any in-text citation should be separated from the main text with the slanted font (italic), font size 12.
If the author underlines any part of the citation, at the end of such citation the square brackets should be indicated containing the following phrase: [author’s remark].
If the author deletes any part of the citation, instead of the deleted part three dots in the square brackets should be written: “Aaa[…]aaa”.
Footnotes – sources cited or paraphrased in the text (literature, normative material, case law), also, author’s remarks (explanations).
Footnotes are placed in the body of the article, at the bottom of the pages and are numbered, while the author’s remarks (explanations) – are indicated with an asterisk * and accordingly, are not numbered.
when the article is in a foreign language, the word “იქვე” is written in the same language, for example, in an article written in English, the word “ibid” is used for the sources published in English.
Sample: 2. Reinhold, Z., 2006. Legal Methodology. Tenth revised edition. Munich: publishing house Beck, p. 11.
3. იქვე. გვ. 32.
Indicating the source and remarks (explanations) in the same footnote
If the footnote contains an indication to the source and remark (explanation) at the same time, the source is written in the first place, and then the author’s remark (explanation) in a separate sentences. In such a case, only the source is numbered and the remark is not indicated with an asterisk.
If the author indicates a cited or paraphrased source and such source is followed by other sources as an example, not cited or paraphrased itself in the text, then the former source is not numbered.
Sample: Liluashvili, T., 2005. Civil Procedure Law. Tbilisi: GCI, p. 123. See more regarding the accomplice also in Qurdadze, Sh. and Khunashvili, N., 2015. Civil Procedure Law. Tbilisi: Meridiani, p. 155.
In the given case, “Reference” (footnotes in Latin alphabet) lists only the book by Liluashvili with its numbering, while book with co-authors of Qurdadze, Sh. and Khunashili N., will not be placed in “Reference”, as the latter is not cited and paraphrased in the text.
Footnotes should be formatted in accordance with Harvard – Anglia 2008 standards.
Book with one author
Last name of the author, initials of the first name., year of publication. Title of the book. Place of publication: Name of the publisher, page number.
Sample: Reinhold, Z., 2006. Legal Methodology. Tenth revised edition. Munich: publishing house Beck, pp. 11-12.
Book with two authors
Last name of the author, initials of the first name. and Last name of the author, initials of the first name., year of publication. Title of the book. Place of publication: Name of the publisher, page number.
Sample: Ghlonti, G. and Ghlonti, A., 2017. Methods of Scholarly Research. Tbilisi: Meridiani, p. 27.
Book with four author
Last name of the author, initials of the first name. Last name of the author, initials of the first name. Last name of the author, initials of the first name. and Last name of the author, initials of the first name., year of publication. Title of the book. Place of publication: Name of the publisher, page number.
Sample: Liluashvili, T., Liluashvili, G., Khrustali, V. and Dzlierishvili, Z., 2014. Civil Procedure Law.1 part. Tbilisi: Samartali, P.25.
Book with more than four author
Last name of the author, initials of the first name. and others, year of publication. Title of the book. Place of publication: Name of the publisher, page number.
Sample: Aqubardia, I. and others, 2008. Criminal Procedure. Tbilisi: Samartali, p. 31.
when referring to an article from a journal, the initials of the author are formatted in the same manner, additionally, the name of the journal and issue number are also indicated.
Sample: Davitashvili, B., Manjavidze, L. and Beridzze, G.,2015. Problems of Law. Herald of Law, 1 (2), p. 21-22.
Sources without author and/or editor
Source without the author or editor is indicated in footnotes by its title and then its other essential information.
Sample: Evolution of Georgian Law. 2009. Tbilisi: Dani, p. 39.
Sources which does not have an author and have an editor
If the indicated source has an editor instead of the author, the editor is indicated in footnotes. After the initial of the editor, the abbreviation “ed.” (“eds.” in plural) should be indicated.
Sample: Dolidze, I., “ed.”, 1965. Monuments of Georgian Law. Vol. 2, Legislative Documents (X-XIX centuries). Tbilisi: Metsniereba, p. 48.
Indicating source by the translator
If the source is indicated by its translator, instead of the initials of the author, the initials of the translator should be written and then the word “trans.” (“trans.” in plural).
Sample: Mtchedlishvili-Hedrich, K.,”transl. ”, 2020. Introduction to Medical Criminal Law. Tbilisi: World of Lawyers, p. 45.
Indicating the source by an organization
If the title page of the source does not contain a reference to the author and/or editor and is published by the organization, then the organization is indicated as the author of the source. The organization does not refer to publishing houses or printing-house.
Last name of the author, initials or the name., Year of publication. Title of the book. Place of publication: Publisher, Page number. [Online] Available at: address of the web-page [ Accessed 10 April 2020].
Sample: elius, R., 2006. Legal Methodology. Tenth revised edition. [Online] Available at: Munich: Beck publication. p. 29. <http://dspace.nplg.gov.ge/bitstream/1234/187916/1/Iuridiuli_Metodebis_Modzgvreba.pdf > [Accessed 10 April 2020].
The full stop is not used at the end of the online source.
In case the online source is not numbered, then the description, for example, “in the introduction” etc. should be added to the date of access.
Indicating the online-sources
Internet sources are placed after the phrase “available at” and are followed by indicating the date of last access to this source.
Sample: Lebanidze, B., 2016. Georgia’s Democratic Dilemma. [Online] Available at: <http://gip.ge/georgias-democratic-dilemma/> [Accessed 30 April 2020]. The words “ინტერნეტი” “ხელმისაწვდომია” and “წვდომის თარიღი” is written in Georgian even in case of indicating the foreign literature.
when the article is in a foreign language, these words are written in the same language, for example, in an article written in English, the words “—-” are used for the sources published in English
Sample: Pletcher, K., 2019. Aung San Suu Kyi. [Online] Available at: https: <//www. britannica.com/biography/Aung-San-Suu-Kyi > [Accessed 30 April 2020].
Normative material in footnotes
When citing or paraphrasing the normative material, if the author uses the general content of such material, they are indicated in the bibliography, after the cited sources list.
Normative material should be placed in the footnotes in the following manner:
Type of document (statute etc.) title, number and year of enactment, name of the source where the document is available, and the year and place of publication of such source.
Sample: article. 15, the statute of Georgia Georgian Civil Code. Parliamentary Gazette, 26/06/1997, # 786.
If the material is placed on the internet, for example, the web-page of the Legislative Herald of Georgia, the address of the web-page is indicated fully.
Sample: Constitution of Georgia. [Online] Available at: <https://matsne.gov.ge/ka/document/view/30346?publication=35 > [Accessed 25 May 2020].
The decision of the Supreme Court of Georgia, 17 June 2020 (case №ას-73-2020).
The same decision placed on the internet
The decision of the Supreme Court of Georgia, 17 June 2020 (case №as-73-2020). [Online] Available at:< http://prg.supremecourt.ge/DetailViewCivil.aspx> [Accessed 25 May 2020].
The decision of the Constitutional Court of Georgia
The decision of the Constitutional Court of Georgia, 28 May 2015 (case №1/3/547).
The decision of the European Court
The decision of the European Court, Dadiani v. Georgia, 12/07/2012, application 8252/08.
Structure of bibliography:
The bibliography should be placed after the body of the article.
Bibliography – is a list of sources cited in the article by the author or used without citation and paraphrase.
The sources in the bibliography are formatted in the same manner as in footnotes, only without the indication of page numbers.
In-text citation and/or paraphrased sources indicated in the footnotes at the bottom of the page, should not be repeated in the bibliography.
For example, if the book by Javakhishvili, I., History of Georgian Nation, V. 1 is cited or paraphrased, it is placed inside the text itself, at the bottom of the relevant page, in footnotes. In such a case, this source will not be repeated in the bibliography. However, if the author uses the book without citing it in other parts of the article too, then the book is also indicated in the bibliography.
The sequence of the cited sources in the bibliography
The sources should be indicated in alphabetical order by the authors’ last name.
If the source does not have the author and editor, it is indicated by the title.
In the first place, sources in the Georgian language are indicated, followed by the sources in English, in French, in German, and lastly, in the Russian language.
Normative material is placed after the cited sources, which were applicable, in the bibliography.
Normative material is indicated in the bibliography only when the author uses it without citing or paraphrasing it. Cited or paraphrased normative material, as mentioned above, is indicated only in footnotes.
When the author uses in-text citation or paraphrase of the articles 15, 27, and 30 of the Civil Procedure Code of Georgia, these articles are indicated only in the footnotes and is not placed in the bibliography.
However, if the same Civil Procedure Code of Georgia is used in the article without the citation and/or paraphrase, then it is also indicated in the bibliography.
Normative material is formatted in the same manner as in footnotes, only without the indicating the particular article.
Normative material is placed in hierarchical order, from the highest to lowest. The same hierarchy is used for the normative material of foreign countries. The Georgian normative material is placed in the first place, followed by foreign normative material.
Case law in the bibliography is indicated after the normative material, where applicable.
Case law should be placed in the following sequence: decisions of the Constitutional Court of Georgia, decisions of the Supreme Court of Georgia, decisions of the Appellate Court of Georgia, decisions of City Court of Georgia, decisions of the European Court, and then decisions of the courts of foreign countries in the same manner.
In this part, the sources in the bibliography are repeated, translated in English. Sources published in German and in French are not translated and are indicated in the language of publication.
The sources are placed in the same sequence, as in the bibliography at the end of the text.
Each and every source are followed by the brackets containing an indication of the language of the source, e.g. source published in Georgian (in Georgian), in Russian (in Russian), in German (in German), in English (in English), etc. After the bracket, the full stop is not written.
The footnotes placed in the text, at the bottom of the page – cited and/or paraphrased sources (except for remarks indicated by an asterisk) are translated completely in English and are placed additionally at the end of the abstract, with the same sequence and numbering. The sources published in German and in French are not translated and are indicated in the language of publication.
Each and every source are followed by brackets containing the information about the language of publication, in the same manner as in the bibliography in the Latin alphabet.
Recommendations of “Techinform” for drafting an abstract
The results of the research and the conclusions should be placed in the first place.
The subject, topic, and the purpose of the research is indicated in the abstract only if they are not expressed in the title of the article.
The method or methodology of the research should be described if it has novelty, or is of importance regarding such research.
Phrases given in the title of the article should not be repeated in the abstract.
Parenthetic words should be avoided (for example, “author of the article discusses…”). The description of previously published works or well-known facts should not be included in the abstract.
The language of the text of the abstract should be in accordance with the academic and technical language, stay consistent with the terminology used and translation loan words (calque) should be avoided.
Units of measurement should be given in accordance with the international systems.
Tables, formulas, schemes, drawings, images, and diagrams are used only in case of necessity when they express the main content of the document and enable the author to shorten the length of the abstract.